Christine Haynes earned a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 2001. She is now Professor of History at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. A specialist in nineteenth-century French history, she has written about the history of a wide range of topics, from publishing, copyright, and authorship, to the memory of the occupations of 1814 and 1815, war indemnities, and roller coasters. This piece is derived from research for her recent book, Our Friends the Enemies: The Occupation of France after Napoleon (Harvard University Press), which won the Eugen Weber Prize for best book in French history after 1815 from UCLA.
Military occupation as a tool of “security culture” is by no means new. In fact, it dates back more than 200 years, to the first modern peace-keeping occupation in France following the defeat of Napoleon. This first such occupation succeeded, because its leaders set clear goals, disciplined their troops, and cooperated with local authorities.