Conference Reviews “Vienna 1815” conference
Wouter Klem published two reviews of the conference “Vienna 1815: The making of a European security culture”. During this conference, the existence of a European security culture was identified and outlined, and the added value of studying international relations, diplomacy and collective (security) enterprises in joint cooperation with detailed historical empirical research was demonstrated. The basis of a set of diverse contributions to the conference was formed by the conceptualization of a European security culture, conceived as an aggregation of collective threat perceptions shared interests and resulting practices and discourses. This concept was elucidated in a position paper by Beatrice de Graaf, and in three keynotes, providing methodological context. During the conference, these cultures were operationalized in four workshops: 1) treat perceptions, 2) new institutions, 3) professional agents, and 4) impact and (cultural) legacy of the congress.